Regulation of cytochrome P4501A1 in teleosts: sustained induction of CYP1A1 mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in the marine fish Stenotomus chrysops.
Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is known to play important roles in the activation and detoxification of carcinogens and other toxicants in vertebrate animals, including fish. Although extensively studied in mammalian systems, the regulation of CYP1A forms in other vertebrates is less well understood. We examined the time course and dose-response relationships for induction of CYP1A1 mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) in the marine fish Stenotomus chrysops (scup). The time course of CYP1A1 induction was determined following a single ip dose (10 nmol/kg) of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was increased after 1 day, reached a maximum by 8 days, and was still elevated 14 days after treatment. The content of immunodetectable CYP1A1 protein in liver was elevated on Day 1 and continued to increase through 14 days. CYP1A1 protein content was also strongly induced in heart and gill beginning at 2 days after treatment and extending through Day 14. Hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA was strongly induced by 1 day after dosing and remained elevated through 14 days. The sustained induction of CYP1A1 mRNA by 2,3,7,8-TCDF contrasts with the transient induction seen previously in fish treated with nonhalogenated inducers and most likely reflects differences in persistence of the inducers. Dose-response studies indicated that induction of CYP1A1 mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity occurred following doses of 2,3,7,8-TCDF as low as 0.4 nmol/kg (120 ng/kg), within the range of whole-body contents of this congener measured in fish from contaminated environments. The estimated dose producing half-maximal CYP1A1 induction in scup was approximately 2-10 nmol/kg, suggesting that the sensitivity of these fish to induction may be as great as or greater than that of rats. In contrast to previous results obtained with 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) and beta-naphthoflavone, which appear to inhibit or inactivate CYP1A1 in fish and other vertebrates, there was a good correlation among levels of CYP1A1 mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity in individual fish following various doses of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. The difference in response to 2,3,7,8-TCDF versus 3,3',4,4'-TCB may reflect differences in the inducing potencies of the two compounds relative to their similar potencies as inhibitors of CYP1A1 catalytic activity. In additional studies to evaluate structure-activity relationships for CYP1A1 induction by chlorinated dibenzofurans in fish, scup were treated with 2,3,6,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,6,8-TCDF). At 10 or 50 nmol/kg, 2,3,6,8-TCDF was inactive as an inducer of CYP1A1 mRNA, protein, or catalytic activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)