234Th deficit and excess were examined in the upper 500 m of the Southern Ocean from Sub-Antarctic to Seasonal Ice Zones (Australian sector) during austral spring 2001. 234Th fluxes at 100 m indicate that particle export was low in the North (46.9–51.0°S), minimal in the Polar and Inter-Polar Frontal Zones and high in the South (?61°S). These results are in tight agreement with new production estimates from the same cruise. Our data indicate that Polar and Inter-Polar Frontal Zones were not zones of intense export in the Australian sector at this time of year, in contrast with other sectors of the Southern Ocean. Also, we highlight the usefulness of 234Th excess below the mixed layer as a tool to study mesopelagic remineralization.