Phytoplankton are significant producers of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine ecosystems but the identity and dynamics of this DOM remain poorly constrained. Knowledge on the identity and dynamics of DOM are crucial for understanding the molecular-level reactions at the base of the global carbon cycle. Here we apply emerging analytical and computational tools from metabolomics to investigate the composition of DOM produced by the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. We assessed both intracellular metabolites within T. pseudonana (the endo-metabolome) and extracellular metabolites released by T. pseudonana (the exo-metabolome). The intracellular metabolites had a more variable composition than the extracellular metabolites. We putatively identified novel compounds not previously associated with T. pseudonana as well as compounds that have previously been identified within T. pseudonana’s metabolic capacity (e.g. dimethylsulfoniopropionate and degradation products of chitin). The resulting information will provide the basis for future experiments to assess the impact of T. pseudonana on the composition of dissolved organic matter in marine environments.