Time-series observations form a critical element of oceanography. New interdisciplinary efforts launched in the past two decades complement the few earlier, longer-running time series to build a better, though still poorly resolved, picture of lower-frequency ocean variability, the climate processes that drive variability, and the implications for food web dynamics, carbon storage, and climate feedbacks. Time series also enlarge our understanding of ecological processes and are integral for improving models of physical-biogeochemical-ecological ocean dynamics. The major time-series observatories go well beyond simple monitoring of core ocean properties, although that important activity forms the critical center of all time-series efforts. Modern ocean time series have major process and experimental components, entrain ancillary programs, and have integrated modeling programs for deriving a better understanding of the observations and the changing, three-dimensional ocean in which the observatories are embedded.